• Fri. Jul 12th, 2024

Introducing Prague-Electra: A Deep Dive into Ethereum’s Next Major Upgrade

Xavier Jackson

ByXavier Jackson

Jun 21, 2024

Ethereum is on the brink of deploying Prague-Electra, commonly referred to as Pectra, its forthcoming major upgrade. This update merges enhancements from two distinct projects: the Prague upgrade, which targets the execution layer, and the Electra upgrade, which modifies the consensus layer. Slated for early 2025, Pectra builds on the foundations laid by the recent Dencun upgrade to further reduce transaction fees and bolster scalability.

Post-Merge Evolution of Ethereum

Since transitioning to a proof-of-stake (PoS) consensus model in September 2022 with The Merge, Ethereum has continued to evolve. The Pectra upgrade will introduce a variety of Ethereum Improvement Proposals (EIPs) aimed at refining network functionality and enhancing user experience.

Key Innovations and Advantages of the Pectra Upgrade

EIP-3074: Enhancements to Wallet Functionality

A notable element of Pectra is EIP-3074, ratified in April 2024, which transforms Ethereum wallets by enabling transaction batching and single-step authorization. This advancement allows ordinary wallets to operate with the versatility of smart contracts, significantly improving efficiency and user interaction.

EIP-7251: Expanding Staking Limits

Under the current framework, Ethereum validators are capped at an effective balance of 32 ETH. EIP-7251 suggests elevating this cap to 2,048 ETH. This adjustment would permit staking providers to manage fewer validators, thereby reducing network congestion and potentially increasing overall network throughput.

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PeerDAS and Rollup Enhancements

The upgrade also integrates Peer Data Availability Sampling (PeerDAS), building on the “blobs” mechanism introduced in EIP-4844. Blobs enhance L2 solutions by facilitating additional data storage off the main chain, thereby alleviating load and reducing transaction costs.

Improvements to the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM)

Pectra will bring updates to the EVM through the Ethereum Virtual Machine Object Format (EOF), aiming to heighten smart contract security and improve the development experience across Ethereum’s layers.

Additional Considerations and Ongoing Discussions

Further proposals under review for Pectra include:

  • EIP-7702: Introducing a new transaction type that may supersede EIP-3074, enhancing account abstraction.
  • EIP-2935: Addressing issues related to historical block hash management.
  • Validator Withdrawals: Facilitating withdrawals from smart contracts and omitting the deposit waiting period.

Implementation Methodology

The implementation of new features and improvements in Ethereum hinges on the Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP) process. Each EIP provides detailed technical descriptions and acts as the foundational document guiding Ethereum’s evolution. These proposals undergo rigorous community discussion and development before potentially being adopted by Ethereum clients.

Roadmap and Anticipated Developments

Following the March 2024 Dencun upgrade, Pectra is scheduled for 2025 and represents a pivotal part of Ethereum’s expansive post-merge strategy. This roadmap, as outlined by Ethereum co-founder Vitalik Buterin, includes phases known as Merge, Surge, Verge, Purge, and Splurge.

While Pectra is viewed as a moderate update, subsequent upgrades are expected to be more transformative, notably incorporating Verkle trees. These promise to revolutionize data storage on Ethereum by reducing proof sizes and lowering node hardware demands, which could drastically improve synchronization speeds and user experience.


Pectra stands as a critical milestone in Ethereum’s ongoing development, aiming to refine both foundational network layers. With the introduction of EIPs such as EIP-3074 and EIP-7251, the upgrade is poised to significantly advance user engagement, network efficiency, and scalability.

As Ethereum continues to progress along its developmental roadmap, Pectra lays the groundwork for future enhancements that will solidify its position as a leader in blockchain technology.

Xavier Jackson

Xavier Jackson

Xavier Jackson is a talented and versatile news writer with a knack for delivering compelling stories. With a dedication to accurate reporting and a captivating writing style, his articles provide readers with insightful and thought-provoking perspectives on current events.

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